Since its first edition in 1990, this has become the standard reference book on assessment in Recreational Therapy.
As with the earlier editions, the purpose of this book is to provide both the therapist and the student with specific, critical information about the assessment process, specific tools, and specific standards related to assessment. The information on national assessments, such as the RAI/MDS for long-term care, is especially important to therapists. The fourth edition has 726 pages with five new assessments and updated information on all national and international standards. This book is used in over fifty colleges and nine different countries!
Introduction 1 Assessment: Road Maps and Wild Cards 1 Note about Copyrights 2 Overview of the Contents 2
Part 1 Background Information 7 Assessment Basics 9 What is an Assessment? 9 Why Give Assessments? 10 Who Gives an Assessment? 10 Timing Considerations 10 Objective versus Subjective Information 10 Types of Assessment Tools 11 Nonstandardized Assessments 11 Standardized Assessments 14 Rapid Assessment Instruments 14 Signs 15 Scales 15 Summary 16 Assessment Theory and Models 17 Theory 17 Models 19 Test Structure 27 Statistics 28 Summary 34 History of Assessment in Recreational Therapy 35 Evolution of Evaluation 35 Hospital Recreation Assessments Prior to the 1950s 38 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 1950s 39 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 1960s 44 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 1970s 46 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 1980s 48 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 1990s 50 Recreational Therapy Assessments in the 2000s 52 Protocols, Treatment Objectives, and Assessment 53 Integrating the FIM® Scale into Assessments 53 Troubling Patterns in Assessment 53 Where We Go From Here 54 Standards of Assessment 55 Regulatory Standards 56 Voluntary Standards 72 Professional Standards 73 Other Assessment Standards 75 Site-Specific Standards 82 General Guidelines for Writing Policies and Procedures 85 The Assessment Process 89 Assessments Prior to the Therapist’s Intake 90 Determining Which Clients Will Be Served by Recreational Therapy 91 Initial Screening for Services 92 Intake Assessment 92 The Interview Process 94 Initial Report and Treatment Plan 100 Clinical Opinion: The Most Frequently Used Assessment 102 Ongoing Assessment 103 Other Assessment Milestones 107 Closing Thoughts 109 Test Construction 111 Development of In-House Forms 112 Checklists 117 Observing Behaviors and Behavioral Observation 118 Developing Questionnaires 129 Translating Testing Tools into Different Languages 134 Other Testing Issues 135 Professional Competency Associated with the Assessment Process 135 Boundaries 139 When Tests are Computerized 143 Adapting Tests for Special Needs 144 Behaviors and Function that Impact Reliability of Test Scores 144 Cultural Issues with Tests 145 Trait versus State 149 Different Definitions of “Disability” 151 Documentation in Medical Charts 157 Basic Rules When Writing in a Chart 157 Documentation Related to the Initiation of Services 158 SOAP Notes 163 Establishing a Baseline for Treatment 164 Documenting Other Needs 166 Documentation Related to Ongoing Service Delivery 167 Considerations When Using Electronic Documentation 169 Politically Correct Terminology 169 Documenting on Sensitive Topics 169 Documentation on Discharge 171 Abbreviations 171 Conclusion 172
Part 2 Standardized Testing Tools 177 Signs and Scales 179 Signs 179 Scales 182 Measuring Attitudes 201 The Multiple Faces of Attitude 201 Leisure Categories: A Nonunified Approach 202 Cooperation and Trust Scale 204 Free Time Boredom 212 Idyll Arbor Leisure Battery 227 Leisure Attitude Measurement 231 Leisure Interest Measure 237 Leisure Motivation Scale 244 Leisure Satisfaction Measure 251 Second Page of the Assessments in the Idyll Arbor Leisure Battery 258 Leisure Diagnostic Battery 262 Leisurescope Plus 270 Life Satisfaction Scale 293 Measurement of Social Empowerment and Trust 297 Questions about Measuring Attitudes 303 Measuring Functional Skills 305 Standard Domains for Measurement of Function 305 Bus Utilization Skills Assessment 319 Comprehensive Evaluation in Recreational Therapy — Psych/Behavioral, Revised 326 Comprehensive Evaluation in Recreational Therapy — Physical Disabilities 337 FOX 346 Functional Assessment of Characteristics for Therapeutic Recreation, Revised 364 Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years 376 Functional Hiking Technique 381 General Recreation Screening Tool (GRST) 390 Idyll Arbor Activity Assessment 399 Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility — Patient Assessment Instrument 416 Leisure and Social/Sexual Assessment 434 Measurable Assessment in Recreation for Resident-Centered Care (MARRCC) 447 Recreation Early Development Screening Tool (REDS) 460 School Social Behavior Scales, Second Edition (SSBS-2) 469 Home and Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS) 469 The Social Attributes Checklist — Assessing Young Children’s Social Competence 489 Therapeutic Recreation Activity Assessment 493 Other Tools that Measure Functional Skills 511 Questions about Measuring Function 515 Measuring Participation Patterns 519 Assessment of Leisure and Recreation Involvement 523 Leisure Assessment Inventory 539 Leisure Step Up 555 Recreation Participation Data Sheet 571 STILAP 578 Vitality Through Leisure 596 Questions about Measuring Participation 615 Community Integration Program 617 Community Integration Program 618 Overview 620 Populations 620 History of the CIP 620 Purpose of the CIP 621 Administration of the CIP 622 Community Environment Modules 623 Module 1A: Environmental Safety 624 Module 1B: Emergency Preparedness 637
Part 3 Measurements of Outcomes 641 Quality Assurance and Quality Indicators 643 Introduction 643 Quality Assurance 643 Interdisciplinary Assessments 646 Quality Indicators 647 Quality Measures 649 Overview of Federal Requirements 656 QI and Assistive Technology in Schools 663 Issues around QA and QI 663 Summary 665 Leisure Competence Measure 667 Background 668 Conceptualization of the LCM 669 The Need for Standardization 670 Psychometric and Measurement Considerations 671 Sensitivity to Diagnosis 671 Measuring Client Capabilities versus Actual Performance 671 Assessment versus Outcome Measurement 672 Resident Assessment Instrument and Minimum Data Set 677 The Resident Assessment Instrument 677 Historical Background of the RAI/MDS 679 Psychometric Properties of the MDS 680 RAI User’s Guide 682 Resident Assessment Protocols (RAPs) 694 Linking Assessment to Individualized Care Plans 704 MDS 3.0 706 References 709 Index 719