Cultural Competence in Recreational Therapy
Jearold W. Holland
Trade Paper, 208 pages
Published by Idyll Arbor
Publication date: 2014
ISBN: 9781882883943
Available as an e-book on Smashwords
e-ISBN 9781611580501

Cultural Competence in Recreational Therapy addresses the importance of cultural diversity in the recreation therapy curriculum and recreational therapy practice. Recreational therapy professionals often interact with persons of different cultural backgrounds. This book provides

1) a better understanding of these cultural nuances to improve recreational therapists’ interactions with people from different backgrounds

2) suggestions for improving understanding of cultural diversity throughout the whole field of recreational therapy

3) rationales and suggestions for improving skills and competencies when working with different racial groups

4) specific racial or cultural/ethnic groups and important historical dates, basic cultural customs and their impact on recreation therapy, and holidays, celebrations, traditions, and recreation practices that might have an impact on professionals who interact with these groups.


Preface            vii

Introduction       1

Part I. Cultural Competency Issues        7

1. The Concept of Cultural Competency 9
     Evolution of the Construct of Cultural Competency           10
     Base Culture in America 12
     Other American Cultures            15
     Client’s Cultural Awareness        20
     Cultural Incompetence    21

2. Legal Requirements and Professional Standards          25
     The Joint Commission     25
     National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services   26
     Developmental Disabilities and Bill of Rights Act of 2002  29
     Therapeutic Recreation Standards           30

3. Cultural Competency in Recreational Therapy Education          35
     Faculty  35
     Curriculum         42
     Students 53

4. Cultural Competency in Recreational Therapy Practice            55
     Minorities with Disabilities           57
     Recreational Therapy Personnel  62
     Marginality and Ethnicity 69
     Culturally Competent Assessment           73
     Self-Appraisal    80
     Informal Interaction        84
     Assessment Interviews   85
     Interview Guide  87

5. Conclusions   91

References       93

Part II. Cultural Descriptions      105

6. African Americans    107
     Some Important Historical Dates for African Americans  107
     African American Culture and Customs   109
     Holidays, Celebrations, and Recreation    120
     Conclusion         122
     References        123

7. Chinese Americans    125
     Some Important Historical Dates for Chinese Americans  126
     Chinese American Culture and Customs  127
     Holidays, Celebrations, and Recreation    136
     Conclusion         140
     References        141

8. Japanese Americans  143
     Some Important Historical Dates for Japanese Americans            143
     Japanese American Culture and Customs            145
     Holidays, Celebrations, and Recreation    149
     Conclusion         150
     References        151

9. Hmong Americans     153
     Some Important Historical Dates for Hmong Americans   153
     Hmong American Culture and Customs   155
     Holidays, Celebrations, and Recreation    162
     Conclusion         165
     References        165

10. Mexican Americans 167
     Some Important Historical Dates for Mexican Americans 169
     Holidays, celebrations, and recreation      178
     Mexican Cultural Symbols           182
     Conclusion         184
     References        184

11. Puerto Rican Americans      187
     Some Important Historical Dates for Puerto Rican Americans      188
     Puerto Rican American Culture and Customs       189
     Holidays, Celebrations, and Recreation    192
     Conclusion         195
     References        195


Jearold Holland, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in Therapeutic Recreation at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse. He has over 30 years teaching experience in the therapeutic recreation and recreation management fields. Dr. Holland’s research’ interests include therapeutic recreation, recreation for underrepresented groups, community recreation, and higher education. Dr. Holland has made numerous presentations on the underrepresented groups in therapeutic recreation, recreation, and higher education at the local, state and national level. He is also the author of Black Recreation: A Historical Perspective and co-author of two urban novels Twisted and Nadine’s Revenge.

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